Your first line of defense to any DDoS, at least on the network side, should be to disperse the traffic across as many resources as you can. Basic math implies that if you have fifteen entry points, and each entry point is capable of supporting 10g of traffic, then you should be able to simply absorb a 100g DDoS attack while still leaving 50g of overhead for real traffic (assuming perfect efficiency, of course—YMMV). Dispersing a DDoS in this way may impact performance—but taking bandwidth and resources down is almost always the wrong way to react to a DDoS attack.
But what if you cannot, for some reason, disperse the attack? Maybe you only have two edge connections, or if the size of the DDoS is larger than your total edge bandwidth combined? It is typically difficult to mitigate a DDoS attack, but there is an escalating chain of actions you can take that often prove useful. Let’s deal with local mitigation techniques first, and then consider some fancier methods.
- TCP SYN filtering: A lot of DDoS attacks rely on exhausting TCP open resources. If all inbound TCP sessions can be terminated in a proxy (such as a load balancer), the proxy server may be able to screen out half open and poorly formed TCP open requests. Some routers can also be configured to hold TCP SYNs for some period of time, rather than forwarding them on to the destination host, in order to block half open connections. This type of protection can be put in place long before a DDoS attack occurs.
- Limiting Connections: It is likely that DDoS sessions will be short lived, while legitimate sessions will be longer lived. The different may be a matter of seconds, or even milliseconds, but it is often enough to be a detectable difference. It might make sense, then, to prefer existing connections over new ones when resources start to run low. Legitimate users may wait longer to connect when connections are limited, but once they are connected, they are more likely to remain connected. Application design is important here, as well.
- Aggressive Aging: In cache based systems, one way to free up depleted resources quickly is to simply age them out faster. The length of time a connection can be held open can often be dynamically adjusted in applications and hosts, allowing connection information to be removed from memory faster when there are fewer connection slots available. Again, this might impact live customer traffic, but it is still a useful technique when in the midst of an actual attack.
- Blocking Bogon Sources: While there is a well known list of bogon addresses—address blocks that should never be routed on the global ‘net—these lists should be taken as a starting point, rather than as an ending point. Constant monitoring of traffic patterns on your edge can give you a lot of insight into what is “normal” and what is not. For instance, if your highest rate of traffic normally comes from South America, and you suddenly see a lot of traffic coming from Australia, either you’ve gone viral, or this is the source of the DDoS attack. It isn’t alway useful to block all traffic from a region, or a set of source addresses, but it is often useful to use the techniques listed above more heavily on traffic that doesn’t appear to be “normal.”
There are, of course, other techniques you can deploy against DDoS attacks—but at some point, you are just not going to have the expertise or time to implement every possible counter. This is where appliance and service (cloud) based services come into play. There are a number of appliance based solutions out there to scrub traffic coming across your links, such as those made by Arbor. The main drawback to these solutions is they scrub the traffic after it has passed over the link into your network. This problem can often be resolved by placing the appliance in a colocation facility and directing your traffic through the colo before it reaches your inbound network link.
There is one open source DDoS scrubbing option in this realm, as well, which uses a combination of FastNetMon, InfluxDB, Grefana, Redis, Morgoth, and Bird to create a solution you can run locally on a spun VM, or even bare metal on a self built appliance wired in between your edge router and the rest of the network (in the DMZ). This option is well worth looking at, if not to deploy, but to better understand how the kind of dynamic filtering performed by commercially available appliances works.
If the DDoS must be stopped before it reached your edge link, and you simply cannot handle the volume of the attacks, then the best solution might be a cloud based filtering solution. These tend to be expensive, and they also tend to increase latency for your “normal” user traffic in some way. The way these normally work is the DDoS provider advertises your routes, or redirects your DNS address to their servers. This draws all your inbound traffic into their network, which it is scrubbed using advanced techniques. Once the traffic is scrubbed, it is either tunneled or routed back to your network (depending on how it was captured in the first place). Most large providers offer scrubbing services, and there are several public offerings available independent of any upstream you might choose (such as Verisign’s line of services).
A front line defense against DDoS is to place your DNS name, and potentially your entire site, behind a DDoS detection and mitigation DNS service and/or content distribution network. For instance, CloudFlare is a widely used service that not only proxies and caches your web site, it also protect you against DDoS attacks.