Is the seven-layer OSI model really all that useful any longer? Before you answer, it’s worth listening to my latest short take over at the Network Collective.
I was over at ipspace to talk to Ivan and several other folks about openfabric. This is one of those situations where… Well, the algorithm openfabric uses to calculate fabric location has changed slightly in the last week. Welcome to the world of networking technology. 🙂
As always, we started with the “what’s wrong with what we have right now, like using BGP as a better IGP” question, resulting in “BGP is becoming the trash can of the Internet”. You can probably guess the next set of intro questions: “Do we need policies and traffic engineering in a high-speed data center fabric?” Finally, we got to discussing OpenFabric, starting with how OpenFabric uses link-state database to modify IS-IS flooding behavior and thus reduces the total amount of flooding in a data center fabric. Next step: how do you know where it’s safe to reduce flooding? You have to figure out whether you’re a leaf or spine, and there are two ways in OpenFabric to solve that challenge.
Many network engineers find the entire world of telecom to be confusing—especially as papers are peppered with a lot of acronyms. If any part of the networking world is more obsessed with acronyms than any other, the telecom world, where the traditional phone line, subscriber access, and network engineering collide, reigns as the “king of the hill.”
Recently, while looking at some documentation for the CORD project, which stands for Central Office Rearchitected as a Data Center, I ran across an acronym I had not seen before—vOLT-HA. An acronym with a dash in the middle—impressive! But what is, exactly? To get there, we must begin in the beginning, with a PON.
There are two kinds of optical networks in the world, Active Optical Networks (AONs), and Passive Optical Networks (PONs). The primary difference between the two is whether the optical gear used to build the network amplifies (or even electronically rebuilds, or repeats) the optical signal as it passes through. In AONs, optical signals are amplified, while ins PONs, optical signals are not amplified. This means that in a PON, the optical equipment can be said to be passive, in that it does not modify the optical signal in any way. Why is this important? Because passive equipment is less complex, and does not require as much power to operate, so a PON is much less expensive to build and maintain than an AON. Hence a PON is often more economically realistic when serving a large number of customers, such as in providing service to residential or small office customers.
A PON uses optical splitters to divide out the signal among the various connected customers. Like any other shared bandwidth medium, every customer receives all the data on the downstream side, switching only traffic destined for the local network onto the copper (usually Ethernet) network beyond the optical termination point (called an OLT, or Optical Line Terminal). In a PON, the upstream signal is divided up into timeslots, so the system uses Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) to provide (a much slower) path from the end device into the provider’s network. As signals from each edn device reach the splitters in the network, the path is reversed, and the splitter ends up becoming a power combiner, which means the signal can “gain power” on the way up towards the central office (CO). These kinds of systems are typically sold as Fiber to the Home, which is abbreviated FTTH (of course!).
Is your head dizzy yet? I hope not, because we are just getting started with the acronyms. 🙂
The Optical Line Terminal, or OLT, must reside in some piece of physical hardware, called an Optical Network Unit (ONU). The OLT, like a server, or an Ethernet port on a router or switch, can be virtualized, so multiple logical OLTs reside on a single physical hardware interface. Just like a VRF or VLAN, this allows a single physical interface to be used for multiple logical connections. In the case, the resulting logical interface is called a vOLT, or a virtual Optical Line Terminal.
Now we are finally getting to the answer to the original question. vOLT must somehow relate to virtualizing the OLT, but how? The answer lies in the idea of disaggregation in passive optical networks (remember, this is a PON). One of the key components of disaggregation is being able to run any software—especially open source software—on any hardware—so-called “white box” hardware in particular. To get to this point, you must have some sort of “open Application Programming Interface,” or API, to connect the software to the hardware. You might think the HA in vOLT-HA stands for “high availability, but then you’d be wrong. 🙂 It actually stands for Hardware Abstraction.
So vOLT-HA, sometimes spelled VOLTHA, is actually a hardware abstraction layer that allows the disaggregation of vOLTs in an ONU in a PON.
For many, the conversation about online privacy centers around a few high-profile companies, and rightly so. We consciously engage with their applications and services and want to know who else might access our information and how they might use it. But there are other, less obvious ways that accessing the World Wide Web exposes us. In this post we will look at how one part of the web’s infrastructure, the Domain Name System (DNS), “leaks” your private information and what you can do to better protect your privacy and security. Although DNS has long been a serious compromise in the privacy of the web, we’ll discuss some simple steps you can take to improve your privacy online. —Stan Adams @CDT
Cloudflare, the internet security and performance services company, announced a new service called “Spectrum.” The service gets its name from the fact that Cloudflare aims to offer DDoS protection for the whole “spectrum” of ports and protocols for its enterprise customers. @Tom’s Hardware
Security researchers have been warning about an ongoing malware campaign hijacking Internet routers to distribute Android banking malware that steals users’ sensitive information, login credentials and the secret code for two-factor authentication. In order to trick victims into installing the Android malware, dubbed Roaming Mantis, hackers have been hijacking DNS settings on vulnerable and poorly secured routers. —Swati Khandelwal @Hacker News
In summary, the best lesson one can take from this paper is that publication in a journal or conference proceedings does not guarantee that the paper withstands scrutiny. The paper is linked above for the interested reader to peruse himself, and to investigate the claims. —Rachel Traylor @The Math Citadel
A security researcher has disclosed details of an important vulnerability in Microsoft Outlook for which the company released an incomplete patch this month—almost 18 months after receiving the responsible disclosure report. The Microsoft Outlook vulnerability (CVE-2018-0950) could allow attackers to steal sensitive information, including users’ Windows login credentials, just by convincing victims to preview an email with Microsoft Outlook, without requiring any additional user interaction. —Swati Khandelwal @Hacker News
As Gandhi once said, “An eye for an eye will only make the whole world blind.” The same could be said about using “hack back” technology for vengeful purposes, such as security defenders who respond to attackers with the intent to harm their systems. —Dr. Salvatore Stolfo @Deark Reading
So ICANN decided to ask Article 29 for some specific guidance about WHOIS and how ICANN plans to deal with it in light of GDPR. You can read the original letter here. Article 29 were meeting in Brussels this week, and they not only discussed the ICANN request, but issued formal advice in response to ICANN’s letters. —Michele Neylon @CircleID
While performing in-depth analysis of various malware samples, security researchers at Cyberbit found a new code injection technique, dubbed Early Bird, being used by at least three different sophisticated malware that helped attackers evade detection. As its name suggests, Early Bird is a “simple yet powerful” technique that allows attackers to inject malicious code into a legitimate process before its main thread starts, and thereby avoids detection by Windows hook engines used by most anti-malware products. —Mohit Kumar @Hacker News