Our community has been talking about BGP security for over 20 years. While MANRS and the RPKI have made some headway in securing BGP, the process of deciding on a method to provide at least the information providers need to make more rational decisions about the validity of individual routes is still ongoing. Geoff Huston joins Alvaro, Russ, and Tom to discuss how we got here and whether we will learn from our mistakes.
Off-topic post for today …
In the battle between marketing and security, marketing always wins. This topic came to mind after reading an article on using email aliases to control your email—
For example, if you sign up for a lot of email newsletters, consider doing so with an alias. That way, you can quickly filter the incoming messages sent to that alias—these are probably low-priority, so you can have your provider automatically apply specific labels, mark them as read, or delete them immediately.
One of the most basic things you can do to increase your security against phishing attacks is to have two email addresses, one you give to financial institutions and another one you give to “everyone else.” It would be nice to have a third for newsletters and marketing, but this won’t work in the real world. Why?
Because it’s very rare to find a company that will keep two email addresses on file for you, one for “business” and another for “marketing.” To give specific examples—my mortgage company sends me both marketing messages in the form of a “newsletter” as well as information about mortgage activity. They only keep one email address on file, though, so they both go to a single email address.
A second example—even worse in my opinion—is PayPal. Whenever you buy something using PayPal, the vendor gets the email address associated with the account. That’s fine—they need to send me updates on the progress of the item I ordered, etc. But they also use this email address to send me newsletters … and PayPal sends any information about account activity to the same email address.
Because of the way these things are structured, I cannot separate information about my account from newsletters, phishing attacks, etc. Since modern Phishing campaigns are using AI to create the most realistic emails possible, and most folks can’t spot a Phish anyway, you’d think banks and financial companies would want to give their users the largest selection of tools to fight against scams.
But they don’t. Why?
Because—if your financial information is mingled with a marketing newsletter, you’ll open the email to see what’s inside … you’ll pay attention. Why spend money helping your users not pay attention to your marketing materials by separating them from “the important stuff?”
When it comes to marketing versus security, marketing always wins. Somehow, we in IT need to do better than this.
While reading a research paper on address spoofing from 2019, I ran into this on NAT (really PAT) failures—
In the first failure mode, the NAT simply forwards the packets with the spoofed source address (the victim) intact … In the second failure mode, the NAT rewrites the source address to the NAT’s publicly routable address, and forwards the packet to the amplifier. When the server replies, the NAT system does the inverse translation of the source address, expecting to deliver the packet to an internal system. However, because the mapping is between two routable addresses external to the NAT, the packet is routed by the NAT towards the victim.
The authors state 49% of the NATs they discovered in their investigation of spoofed addresses fail in one of these two ways. From what I remember way back when the first NAT/PAT device (the PIX) was deployed in the real world (I worked in TAC at the time), there was a lot of discussion about what a firewall should do with packets sourced from addresses not indicated anywhere.
If I have an access list including 192.168.1.0/24, and I get a packet sourced from 192.168.2.24, what should the NAT do? Should it forward the packet, assuming it’s from some valid public IP space? Or should it block the packet because there’s no policy covering this source address?
This is similar to the discussion about whether BGP speakers should send routes to an external peer if there is no policy configured. The IETF (though not all vendors) eventually came to the conclusion that BGP speakers should not advertise to external peers without some form of policy configured.
My instinct is the NATs here are doing the right thing—these packets should be forwarded—but network operators should be aware of this failure mode and configure their intentions explicitly. I suspect most operators don’t realize this is the way most NAT implementations work, and hence they aren’t explicitly filtering source addresses that don’t fall within the source translation pool.
In the real world, there should also be a box just outside the NATing device that’s running unicast reverse path forwarding checks. This would resolve these sorts of spoofed packets from being forwarding into the DFZ—but uRPF is rarely implemented by edge providers, and most edge connected operators (enterprises) don’t think about the importance of uRPF to their security.
All this to say—if you’re running a NAT or PAT, make certain you understand how it works. Filters are tricky in the best of circumstances. NAT and PATs just make filters trickier.
Fear sells. Fear of missing out, fear of being an imposter, fear of crime, fear of injury, fear of sickness … we can all think of times when people we know (or worse, a people in the throes of madness of crowds) have made really bad decisions because they were afraid of something. Bruce Schneier has documented this a number of times. For instance: “it’s smart politics to exaggerate terrorist threats” and “fear makes people deferential, docile, and distrustful, and both politicians and marketers have learned to take advantage of this.” Here is a paper comparing the risk of death in a bathtub to death because of a terrorist attack—bathtubs win.
But while fear sells, the desire to appear unafraid also sells—and it conditions people’s behavior much more than we might think. For instance, we often say of surveillance “if you have done nothing wrong, you have nothing to hide”—a bit of meaningless bravado. What does this latter attitude—“I don’t have anything to worry about”—cause in terms of security?
Several attempts at researching this phenomenon have come to the same conclusion: average users will often intentionally not use things they see someone they perceive as paranoid using. According to this body of research, people will not use password managers because using one is perceived as being paranoid in some way. Theoretically, this effect is caused by illusory correlation, where people associate an action with a kind of person (only bad/scared people would want to carry a weapon). Since we don’t want to be the kind of person we associate with that action, we avoid the action—even though it might make sense.
This is just the flip side of fear sells, of course. Just like we overestimate the possibility of a terrorist attack impacting our lives in a direct, personal way, we also underestimate the possibility of more mundane things, like drowning in a tub, because we either think can control it, or because we don’t think we’ll be targeted in that way, or because we want to signal to the world that we “aren’t one of those people.”
Even knowing this is true, however, how can we counter this? How can we convince people to learn to assess risks rationally, rather than emotionally? How can we convince people that the perception of control should not impact your assessment of personal security or safety?
Simplifying design and use of the systems we build would be one—perhaps not-so-obvious—step we can take. The more security is just “automatic,” the more users will become accustomed to deploying security in their everyday lives. Another thing we might be able to do is stop trying to scare people into using these technologies.
In the meantime, just be aware that if you’re an engineer, your use of a technology “as an example” to others can backfire, causing people to not want to use those technologies.
Intentionally poisoning BGP routes in the Default-Free Zone (DFZ) would always be a bad thing, right? Actually, this is a fairly common method to steer traffic flows away from and through specific autonomous systems. How does this work, how common is it, and who does this? Jared Smith joins us on this episode of the Hedge to discuss the technique, and his research into how frequently it is used.
One of the big movements in the networking world is disaggregation—splitting the control plane and other applications that make the network “go” from the hardware and the network operating system. This is, in fact, one of the movements I’ve been arguing in favor of for many years—and I’m not about to change my perspective on the topic. There are many different arguments in favor of breaking the software from the hardware. The arguments for splitting hardware from software and componentizing software are so strong that much of the 5G transition also involves the open RAN, which is a disaggregated stack for edge radio networks.
If you’ve been following my work for any amount of time, you know what comes next: If you haven’t found the tradeoffs, you haven’t looked hard enough.
This article on hardening Linux (you should go read it, I’ll wait ’til you get back) exposes some of the complexities and tradeoffs involved in disaggregation in the area of security. Some further thoughts on hardening Linux here, as well. Two points.
First, disaggregation has serious advantages, but disaggregation is also hard work. With a commercial implementation you wouldn’t necessarily think about these kinds of supply chain issues. This is an example of the state/optimization/surfaces tradeoff. You can optimize your network more fully using disaggregation techniques, but there are going to be more interaction surfaces, and there’s going to be more state to deal with (for instance, the security state on individual devices).
There are several items on this list that also illustrate the state/optimization/surfaces tradeoff. For instance, eBPF is on the list of things to disable … but eBPF is probably going to be crucial to many future network-facing implementations. Anything that’s useful is going to inherently create attack surfaces you need to deal with. Get over it.
Second, just because you don’t think about these issues with a commercial implementation does not mean you don’t need to think about these things—it just means these kinds of things are opaque to you. Rather than trying to do the “right thing” yourself, you are outsourcing this work to a vendor. This is often a rational decision, and even might often be the right decision, but it’s a decision. We often “bury” these kinds of decisions in our thinking, not realizing we are making tradeoffs.
When I was in the military we were constantly drilled about the problem of Essential Elements of Friendly Information, or EEFIs. What are EEFis? If an adversary can cast a wide net of surveillance, they can often find multiple clues about what you are planning to do, or who is making which decisions. For instance, if several people married to military members all make plans to be without their spouses for a long period of time, the adversary can be certain a unit is about to be deployed. If the unit of each member can be determined, then the strength, positioning, and other facts about what action you are taking can be guessed.
Given enough broad information, an adversary can often guess at details that you really do not want them to know.
What brings all of this to mind is a recent article in Dark Reading about how attackers take advantage of publicly available information to form Spear Phishing attacks—
Most security leaders are acutely aware of the threat phishing scams pose to enterprise security. What garners less attention is the vast amount of publicly available information about organizations and their employees that enables these attacks.
Going back further in time, during World War II, we have—
What does all of this mean for the average network engineer concerned about security? Probably nothing different than being just slightly paranoid about your personal security in the first place (way too much modern security is driven by an anti-paranoid mindset, a topic for a future post). Things like—
- Don’t let people know, either through your job description or anything else, that you hold the master passwords for your company, or that your account holds administrator rights.
- Don’t always go to the same watering holes, and don’t talk about work while there to people you’ve just met, or even people you see there all the time.
- Don’t talk about when and where you’re going on vacation. You can talk about it, and share pictures, once you’re back.
If an attacker knows you are going to be on vacation, it’s a lot easier to create a fake “emergency,” tempting you to give out information about accounts, people, and passwords you shouldn’t. Phishing is primarily a matter of social engineering rather than technical acumen. Countering social engineering is also a social skill, rather than a technical one. You can start by learning to just say less about what you are doing, when you are doing it, and who holds the keys to the kingdom.