One of the most important features of the Network Operating Systems, like Banyan Vines and Novell Netware, available in the middle of the 1980’s was their integrated directory system. These directory systems allowed for the automatic discovery of many different kinds of devices attached to a network, such as printers, servers, and computers. Printers, of course, were the important item in this list, because printers have always been the bane of the network administrator’s existence. An example of one such system, an early version of Active Directory, is shown in the illustration below.
Users, devices and resources, such as file mounts, were stored in a tree. The root of the tree was (generally) the organization. There were Organizational Units (OUs) under this root. Users and devices could belong to an OU, and be given access to devices and services in other OUs through a fairly simple drag and drop, or GUI based checkbox style interface. These systems were highly developed, making it fairly easy to find any sort of resource, including email addresses of other uses in the organization, services such as shared filers, and—yes—even printers.
The original system of this kind was Banyan’s Streetalk, which did not have the depth or expressiveness of later systems, like the one shown above from Windows NT, or Novell’s Directory Services. A similar system existed in another network operating system called LANtastic, which was never really widely deployed (although I worked on a LANtastic system in the late 1980’s).
The usual “pitch” for deploying these systems was the ease of access control they brought into the organization from the administration side, along with the ease of finding resources from the user’s perspective. Suppose you were sitting at your desk, and needed to know who over in some other department, say accounting, you could contact about some sort of problem, or idea. If you had one of these directory services up and running, the solution was simple: open the directory, look for the accounting OU within the tree, and look for a familiar name. Once you have found them, you could send them an email, find their phone number, or even—if you had permission—print a document at a printer near their desk for them to pick up. Better than a FAX machine, right?
What if you had multiple organizations who needed to work together? Or you really wanted a standard way to build these kinds of directories, rather than being required to run one of the network operating systems that could support such a system? There were two industry wide standards designed to address these kinds of problems: LDAP and X.500.
The OUs, CNs, and other elements shown in the illustration above are actually an expression of the X.500 directory system. As X.500 was standardized starting in the mid-1990’s, these network operating systems changed their native directory systems to match the X.500 schema. The ultimate goal was to make these various directory services interoperate through X.500 connectors.
Given all this background, what happened to these systems? Why are these kinds of directories widely available today? While there are many reasons, two of these stand out.
First, these systems are complex and heavy. Their complexity made them very hard to code and maintain; I can well remember working on a large Netware Directory Service deployment where objects fell into the wrong place on a regular basis, drive mapping did not work correctly, and objects had to be deleted and recreated to force their permissions to reset.
Large, complex systems tend to be unstable in unpredictable ways. One lesson the information technology world has not learned across the years is that abstraction is not enough; the underlying systems themselves must be simplified in a way that makes the abstraction more closely resemble the underlying reality. Abstraction can cover problems up as easily as it can solve problems.
Second, these systems fit better in a world of proprietary protocols and network operating systems than into a world of open protocols. The complexity driven into the network by trying to route IP, Novell’s IPX, Banyan’s VIP, DECnet, Microsoft’s protocols, Apple’s protocols, etc., made building and managing networks ever more complex. Again, while the interfaces were pretty abstractions, the underlying network was also reminiscent of a large bowl of spaghetti. There were even attempts to build IPX/VIP/IP packet translators so a host running Vines’ could communicate with devices on the then nascent global Internet.
Over time, the simplicity of IP, combined with the complexity and expense of these kinds of systems drove them from the scene. Some remnants live on in the directory structure contained in email and office software packages, but they are a shadow of Streettalk, NDS, and the Microsoft equivalent. The more direct descendants of these systems are single sign-on and OAUTH systems that allow you to use a single identity to log into multiple places.
But the primary function of finding things, rather than authenticating them, has long been left behind. Today, if you want to know someone’s email address, you look them up on your favorite social medial network. Or you don’t bother with email at all.