Research: BGP Routers and Parrots

5 December 2018 | 0 Comments

The BGP specification suggests implementations should have three tables: the adj-rib-in, the loc-rib, and the adj-rib-out. The first of these three tables should contain the routes (NLRIs and attributes) transmitted by each of the speaker’s peers. The second table should contain the calculated best paths; these are the routes that will be (or are) installed…

Lessons from Andromeda

26 November 2018 | Comments Off on Lessons from Andromeda

A common complaint I hear among network engineers is that the lessons and techniques used by truly huge scale networks simply are not applicable to more “standard scale” networks. The key point, however, is balance—to look for the ideas and concepts that are interesting and at least somewhat novel, and then see how they might…

CAA Records and Site Security

19 November 2018 | Comments Off on CAA Records and Site Security

The little green lock—now being deprecated by some browsers—provides some level of comfort for many users when entering personal information on a web site. You probably know the little green lock means the traffic between the host and the site is encrypted, but you might not stop to ask the fundamental question of all cryptography:…

Research: Measuring IP Liveness

12 November 2018 | Comments Off on Research: Measuring IP Liveness

Of the 4.2 billion IPv4 addresses available in the global space, how many are used—or rather, how many are “alive?” Given the increasing usage of IPv6, it might seem this is an unimportant question. Answering the question, however, resolves to another question that is actually more important: how can you determine whether or not an…

BGP Hijacks: Two more papers consider the problem

5 November 2018 | Comments Off on BGP Hijacks: Two more papers consider the problem

The security of the global Default Free Zone DFZ) has been a topic of much debate and concern for the last twenty years (or more). Two recent papers have brought this issue to the surface once again—it is worth looking at what these two papers add to the mix of what is known, and what…

Ossification and Fragmentation: The Once and Future ‘net

29 October 2018 | Comments Off on Ossification and Fragmentation: The Once and Future ‘net

Mostafa Ammar, out of Georgia Tech (not my alma mater, but many of my engineering family are alumni there), recently posted an interesting paper titled The Service-Infrastructure Cycle, Ossification, and the Fragmentation of the Internet. I have argued elsewhere that we are seeing the fragmentation of the global Internet into multiple smaller pieces, primarily based…

PFAT Trees Short Take

13 September 2018 | Comments Off on PFAT Trees Short Take

Research: Tail Attacks on Web Applications

12 September 2018 | 1 Comment

When you think of a Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack, you probably think about an attack which overflows the bandwidth available on a single link; or overflowing the number of half open TCP sessions a device can have open at once, preventing the device from accepting more sessions. In all cases, a DoS or…

Research: DNSSEC in the Wild

5 September 2018 | Comments Off on Research: DNSSEC in the Wild

The DNS system is, unfortunately, rife with holes like Swiss Cheese; man-in-the-middle attacks can easily negate the operation of TLS and web site security. To resolve these problems, the IETF and the DNS community standardized a set of cryptographic extensions to cryptographically sign all DNS records. These signatures rely on public/private key pairs that are…

CLKscrew: Another side channel you didn’t know about

30 August 2018 | Comments Off on CLKscrew: Another side channel you didn’t know about

Network engineers focus on protocols and software, but somehow all of this work must connect to the hardware on which packets are switched, and data is processed. A big part of the physical side of what networks “do” is power—how it is used, and how it is managed. The availability of power is one of…