One of the difficulties for the average network operator trying to understand their failure rates and reasons is they just don’t have enough devices, or enough incidents, to make informed observations. If you have a couple of dozen switches, it is often hard to understand how often software defects take a device down versus human error (Mean Time Between Mistakes, or MTBM). As networks become larger, however, more information becomes available, and more interesting observations can be made. A recent paper written in conjunction with Facebook uses information from Facebook’s data center fabrics to make some observations about the rate and severity of different kinds of failures—needless to say, the results are fairly interesting.
To produce the study, the authors took data from Facebook’s ticket logging system over 6 years, from 2011 through 2018. They used language-based systems to classify each event based on severity, kind of remediation, and root cause. Once the events were classified, the researchers plotted and tried to understand the results. For instance, table 2 lists the most common root causes of data center fabric incidents: 17% were maintenance, 13% misconfiguration, 13% hardware, and 12% software defects (bugs).
Given Facebook’s network is completely automated, with a full code review/canary process for validating changes before they are put into production, misconfiguration failures should lower than a manually operated network. That 13% of failures are still accounted for by misconfiguration shows even the best automation program cannot eliminate failures from misconfiguration. This number is also interesting because it implies networks without this degree of automation must have much higher failure rates due to misconfiguration. While the raw number of failures are not given, this seems to provide both an idea of how much improvement automation can create, as well as a sort of “cap” on how much improvement operators can expect by automating.
If misconfiguration causes 13% of all failures, and software defects cause 12%, then 25% of all failures are caused by human error. I don’t know of any other studies of this kind, but 25% sounds about right based on years of experience. Whether this 25% is spread across failures in vendor code and operator configuration, or across operator created code and operator configuration, the percentage of failure seems to remain about the same. It is not likely you can eliminate failures caused by human error, nor are you likely to drive it down more than a couple of percentage points.
Another interesting finding here is larger networks increase the time humans take to resolve incidents. As the size of the network scales up, the MTTR scales up with it. This is intuitive—larger networks tend to have more complex configurations, leading to more time spent trying to chase down and understand a problem. One thing the paper does not discuss, but might be interesting, is how modularization impacts these numbers. Intuitively, containing failures within a module (whether horizontally along topological lines or vertically through virtualization) should decrease the scope in which a network engineer needs to search to find a problem and resolve it. This is, on the other hand, likely to be offset somewhat by the increased complexity and reduction in visibility caused by segmentation—so it’s hard to determine what the overall effect of deeper segmentation in a network might be.
Overall, this is an interesting paper to parse through and understand—there are lots of great insights here for network operators at any scale.