Deterministic Networking and New IP

For those not following the current state of the ITU, a proposal has been put forward to (pretty much) reorganize the standards body around “New IP.” Don’t be confused by the name—it’s exactly what it sounds like, a proposal for an entirely new set of transport protocols to replace the current IPv4/IPv6/TCP/QUIC/routing protocol stack nearly 100% of the networks in operation today run on. Ignoring, for the moment, the problem of replacing the entire IP infrastructure, what can we learn from this proposal?

What I’d like to focus on is deterministic networking. Way back in the days when I was in the USAF, one of the various projects I worked on was called PCI. The PCI network was a new system designed to unify the personnel processing across the entire USAF, so there were systems (Z100s, 200s, and 250s) to be installed in every location across the base where personnel actions were managed. Since the only wiring we had on base at the time was an old Strowger mainframe, mechanical crossbars at a dozen or so BDFs, and varying sizes of punch-downs at BDFs and IDFs, everything for this system needed to be punched- or wrapped-down as physical circuits.

It was hard to get anything like real bandwidth over paper-wrapped cables with lead shielding that had been installed in the 1960s (or before??), wrap-downs, and 66 blocks. The max we could get in terms of bandwidth was about a T1, and often less. We needed more bandwidth than this, so we installed inverse multiplexers that would combine the bandwidth across multiple physical circuits to something large enough for the PCI system to run on.

The problem we ran into with these inverse multiplexers was they would sometimes fall out of synchronization, meaning frames would be delivered out of order—one of the two cardinal violations of deterministic networks. Since PCI was designed around a purely deterministic networking model, these failures caused havoc with HR. Not a good thing.

The second and third cardinal rules of deterministic networking are that there will be no jitter, and the network will deliver all packets accepted by the network. To make these rules work, there must be some form of entrance gating (circuit setup, generally speaking, with busy signals), fixed packet sizes, and strict quality of service.

In contrast, the rules of packet-switched (non-deterministic) networking are: all packets are accepted, packets can be (almost) any size, there is no guarantee any particular packet will be delivered, and there’s no way to know what the jitter and delay on delivering any particular packet might be.

Some kinds of payloads just need deterministic semantics, while others just need deterministic semantics. The problem, then, is how to build a single network that supports both kinds of semantics. Solving this problem is where thinking through the situation using a problem-solution mindset can help you, as a network engineer (or protocol designer, or software creator) understand what can be done, what cannot be done, and what the limitations are going to be no matter what solution you choose.

There are, at base, only three solutions to this problem. The first is to build a network that supports both deterministic and packet-switched traffic from the control planes to the switching path. The complexity of doing something like this would ultimately outweigh any possible benefit, so let’s leave that solution aside. The second is to emulate a deterministic network on top of a packet-switched network, and the third is to emulate a packet-switched network on top of a deterministic network. Consider the last option first—emulating a packet-switched network on top of a deterministic network. For those who are old enough, this is IP-over-ATM. It didn’t work. The inefficiencies of trying to stuff variably sized packets into the fixed-size frames required to create a deterministic network were so significant that it just … didn’t work. The control planes were difficult to deploy and manage—think ATM LANE, for instance—and the overall network was just really complicated.

Today, what we mostly do is emulate deterministic networks over packet-switched networks. This design allows traffic that does well in a packet-switched environment to run perfectly fine, and traffic that likes “some” deterministic properties, like voice, to work fine with a little effort on the part of the network designer and operator. Building something with all the properties of a genuinely deterministic network on top of a packet-switched network, however, is difficult.

To get there, you need a few things. First, you need some way to strictly control/steer flows, so the mix of packet and deterministic traffic is going allow you to meet deterministic requirements on every link through the network. Second, you need some excellent QoS mechanism that knows how to provide deterministic results while mixing in packet-switched traffic “underneath.” Third, you need to overprovision enough to take up any “slack” and variability, as well as to account for queuing and clock on/clock off delays through switching devices.

The truth is we can come pretty close—witness the ability of IP networks to carry video streaming and what looks like traditional voice today. Can it get better? I’m confident we can build systems that are ever closer to emulating a truly deterministic network on top of a packet-switched network—so long as we mind the tradeoffs and are willing to throw capacity and hardware at the problem.

Can we ever truly emulate packet-switched networks on top of deterministic networks? I don’t see how. It’s not just that we’ve tried and failed; it’s that the math just doesn’t ever seem to “work right” in some way or another.

So while the “new IP” proposal brings up an interesting problem—future applications may need more deterministic networking profiles—it doesn’t explain why we should believe either building a completely parallel deterministic network or trying to flip the stack to emulate a packet-switched network on top of a deterministic network, makes more sense than what we are doing today.

Looking at this from a problem/solution perspective helps clarify the situation, and produce a conclusion about which path is best, without even getting into specific protocols or implementations. Really understanding the problem you are trying to solve, even at an abstract level, and then working through all the possible solutions, even ones that might not have been invented yet (although I can promise you then have been invented), can help you get your mind around the engineering possibilities.

It is probably not how you’re accustomed to looking at network design, protocol selection, etc. But it’s one you should start using.