BGP Intra-AS and Route Reflection

By Russ | 21 June 2022 |

Since BGP is designed to be an overlay protocol, it doesn’t really have good mechanisms for carrying routes within an autonomous system. In this video, I’m discussing some of the techniques developed to carry routes within an AS, including route reflectors.

Revisiting BGP Convergence

By Russ | 6 June 2022 |

My video on BGP convergence elicited a lot of . . . feedback, mainly concerning the difference between convergence in a data center fabric and convergence in the DFZ. Let’s begin here—BGP hunt and the impact of the MRAI are very real in the DFZ. Withdrawing a route can take several minutes.

What about the much more controlled environment of a data center fabric?

Several folks pointed out that the MRAI is often set to 0 in DC fabrics (and many implementations by default). Further, almost all implementations will use an MRAI of 0 for the first received update, holding the second and subsequent advertisements by the MRAI. Several folks also pointed out that all the paths through a DC fabric are the same length, so the second part of the equation is also very small.

These are good points—how do they impact BGP convergence? Let’s use the network below, a small slice of a five-stage butterfly fabric, to think it through. Assume every router is in a different AS, so all the peering sessions are eBGP.

How BGP Really Converges

By Russ | 31 May 2022 |

This lesson in Russ White’s BGP course gets into withdrawing a route, MRAI time, implicit withdraws, BGP Hunt, graceful restart, and other topics.

Original link at Packet Pushers here

OT’N: BGP Loop Free Paths

By Russ | 16 May 2022 | Comments Off on OT’N: BGP Loop Free Paths

Over at Packet Pushers—

Russ White’s BGP series continues with a discussion of building loop-free paths with the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). Topics include AS (Autonomous System) paths, loop prevention, why loop checks are inbound, and more on IBGP and EBGP.

BGP Policy (Part 7)

By Russ | 9 May 2022 | Comments Off on BGP Policy (Part 7)

At the most basic level, there are only three BGP policies: pushing traffic through a specific exit point; pulling traffic through a specific entry point; preventing a remote AS (more than one AS hop away) from transiting your AS to reach a specific destination. In this series I’m going to discuss different reasons for these kinds of policies, and different ways to implement them in interdomain BGP.

There are cases where an operator does not traffic to be forwarded to them through some specific AS, whether directly connected or multiple hops away. For instance, AS65001 and AS65005 might be operated by companies in politically unfriendly nations. In this case, AS65001 may be legally required to reject traffic that has passed through the nation in which AS65005 is located. There are at least three mechanisms in BGP that are used, in different situations, to enforce this kind of policy.

BGP Policy (Part 6)

By Russ | 3 May 2022 | Comments Off on BGP Policy (Part 6)

At the most basic level, there are only three BGP policies: pushing traffic through a specific exit point; pulling traffic through a specific entry point; preventing a remote AS (more than one AS hop away) from transiting your AS to reach a specific destination. In this series I’m going to discuss different reasons for these kinds of policies, and different ways to implement them in interdomain BGP.

In this post I’m going to cover local preference via communities, longer prefix match, and conditional advertisement from the perspective of AS65001 in the following network—

BGP Policies (Part 5)

By Russ | 25 April 2022 | Comments Off on BGP Policies (Part 5)

At the most basic level, there are only three BGP policies: pushing traffic through a specific exit point; pulling traffic through a specific entry point; preventing a remote AS (more than one AS hop away) from transiting your AS to reach a specific destination. In this series I’m going to discuss different reasons for these kinds of policies, and different ways to implement them in interdomain BGP.

In this post I’m going to cover AS Path Prepending from the perspective of AS65001 in the following network—

BGP Policies (Part 4)

By Russ | 4 April 2022 | Comments Off on BGP Policies (Part 4)

At the most basic level, there are only three BGP policies: pushing traffic through a specific exit point; pulling traffic through a specific entry point; preventing a remote AS (more than one AS hop away) from transiting your AS to reach a specific destination. In this series I’m going to discuss different reasons for these kinds of policies, and different ways to implement them in interdomain BGP.

In this post, I’ll cover the first of a few ways to give surrounding autonomous systems a hint about where traffic should enter a network. Note this is one of the most vexing problems in BGP policy, so there will be a lot of notes across the next several posts about why some solutions don’t work all that well, or when they will and won’t work.

There are at least three reasons an operator may want to control the point at which traffic enters their network, including:

BGP Policies (Part 2)

By Russ | 14 March 2022 | Comments Off on BGP Policies (Part 2)

At the most basic level, there are only three BGP policies: pushing traffic through a specific exit point; pulling traffic through a specific entry point; preventing a remote AS (more than one AS hop away) from transiting your AS to reach a specific destination. In this series I’m going to discuss different reasons for these kinds of policies, and different ways to implement them in interdomain BGP.

There are many reasons an operator might want to select which neighboring AS through which to send traffic towards a given reachable destination (for instance, 100::/64). Each of these examples assumes the AS in question has learned multiple paths towards 100::/64, one from each peer, and must choose one of the two available paths to forward along. This post wil consider selecting an exit point from the perspective of two more autonomous systems.

BGP Policies (part 1)

By Russ | 7 March 2022 |

At the most basic level, there are only three BGP policies: pushing traffic through a specific exit point; pulling traffic through a specific entry point; preventing a remote AS (more than one AS hop away) from transiting your AS to reach a specific destination. In this series I’m going to discuss different reasons for these kinds of policies, and different ways to implement them in interdomain BGP.