The Effectiveness of AS Path Prepending (1)

Just about everyone prepends AS’ to shift inbound traffic from one provider to another—but does this really work? First, a short review on prepending, and then a look at some recent research in this area.

What is prepending meant to do?

Looking at this network diagram, the idea is for AS6500 (each router is in its own AS) to steer traffic through AS65001, rather than AS65002, for 100::/64. The most common method to trying to accomplish this is AS65000 can prepend its own AS number on the AS Path Multiple times. Increasing the length of the AS Path will, in theory, cause a route to be less preferred.

In this case, suppose AS65000 prepends its own AS number on the AS Path once before advertising the route towards AS65001, and not towards AS65002. Assuming there is no link between AS65001 and AS65002, what would we expect to happen? What we would expect is AS65001 will receive one route towards 100::/64 with an AS Path of 2 and use this route. AS65002 will, likewise, receive one route towards 100::/64 with an AS Path of 1 and use this route.

AS65003, however, will receive two routes towards 100::/64, one with an AS Path of 3 through AS65001, and one with an AS Path of 2 through AS65002. All other things being equal (local preference, etc.), AS65003 will prefer the route with the shorter AS Path through AS65002, and select that path to reach 100::/64. AS65004 will only receive one path towards 100::/64, the one through AS65002, because AS65003 will only advertise its best path to AS65004.

The obvious question—how much good does this really do? The only impact on the best path is two hops away, as AS65003, and beyond. The route chosen by AS65001 and AS65002 will not be affected by the prepending.

A recent paper found—

We observe that the effectiveness of prepending can strongly depend on the location (for around 20% of cases, ASPP has moved no targets, while for another 20% , it moved almost all targets).

You might expect As Path prepending to have a much more consistent effect on inbound traffic. Why doesn’t it?

What might not be obvious (the danger of simplified diagrams): if autonomous systems directly attached to AS65001 originate most of the traffic destined to 100::/64, no amount of prepending is going to make any difference in the inbound traffic flow. Assume AS5001 has a connection to some cloud service, AS65002 does not have a connection to the same cloud service, and 100::64 is a local server that communicates with this cloud service on a regular basis. Since AS65001 is the only AS transiting traffic from the cloud service to the server located on the 100::/64 subnet, and AS65001 only has one route to 100::/64, you are not going to be able to shift traffic off that single path no matter how many times you prepend.

The first rule of prepending is location matters. You have to know where the traffic you want to shift is originating, and whether or not it can be shifted.

In my next post on this topic, I’ll continue exploring AS path prepending more in light of the results of the research paper above.


  1. JeffT on 10 May 2021 at 10:38 pm