At the most basic level, there are only three BGP policies: pushing traffic through a specific exit point; pulling traffic through a specific entry point; preventing a remote AS (more than one AS hop away) from transiting your AS to reach a specific destination. In this series I’m going to discuss different reasons for these kinds of policies, and different ways to implement them in interdomain BGP.
In this post I’m going to cover local preference via communities, longer prefix match, and conditional advertisement from the perspective of AS65001 in the following network—
Communities an Local Preference
As noted above, MED is the tool “designed into” BGP for selecting an entrance point into the local AS for specific reachable destinations. MED is not very effective, however, because a route’s preference will always win over MED, and because it is not carried between autonomous systems.
Some operators provide an alternate for MED in the form of communities that set a route’s preference within the AS. For instance, assume 100::/64 is geographically closer to the [65001,65003] link than either of the [65001,65002] links, so AS65001 would prefer traffic destined to 100::/64 enter through AS65003.
In this case, AS65001 can advertise 100::/64 with a community that makes AS65001 prefer the route through AS65003 over the direct route to AS65001 (see 2914:450 on NTT’s list of customer set communities as an example).
Note: Many of the communities described here have regional versions for more specific use cases. These operate on the same principles, just in a more restricted topological or geographical area.
Longer Prefix Match
While MED is often not effective, and using communities is both restricted in range and complex to configure and manage, advertising a longer-prefix match always works, is simple to configure, and easy to deploy.
For instance, if AS65001 would like traffic destined to 100::/64 to only enter from AS65003, it may advertise an aggregated route, say 2001:db8:3e8100::/63 to both AS65003 and AS65002, and then advertise 100::/64 only to AS65003. Because all routing systems will select the prefix with the longest match first, the /64 through AS65003 will be selected over the /63 through AS65003 and AS65003, so the traffic always enters AS65001 the way the operator desires.
The overlapping, or covering, aggregate is advertised to provide backup reachability. If the [AS65001,AS65003] link (or peering) fails for any reason, traffic destined to 100::/64 will follow the /63 route, entering from AS65002. This is not optimal from the perspective of AS65001, but it keeps connectivity in place while any problems can be traced down and repaired.
According to Geoff Huston, a large percentage of the routes in the current global table are advertised for traffic engineering—to manipulate the point at which traffic destined to specific reachable destinations enters an AS.
Note: The use of longer prefix routes to control inbound route flows represents a “tragedy of the commons” problem to the global Internet. Work has been put into various mechanisms designed to remove these more specific routes from the routing table when they are no longer needed, but little progress has been made in implementing them, not have any of these solutions achieved widespread adoption and deployment.
What if AS65001 has signed a contract with AS65003 to carry traffic only if both its links to AS65002 fails? In this case, AS65001 could advertise many more longer prefix specifics through AS65002 and one shorter covering route through AS6503.
This strategy, however, has two flaws. First, it requires AS6501 to manage the more specifics and covering routes as a set, making certain the pairs are correctly configured. Second, it could be that AS65001 does not want anyone to know about this backup arrangement unless and until it is used. This is sometimes the case when two competitors agree to back one another up, and neither wants anyone to know what their backup arrangements are.
To resolve these (and other) policy problems, operators can use conditional advertisement.
Conditional advertisement is conceptually simple; if a router does not have some route, x, in its routing table, it advertises some other route (given the route is in the local tables so it can be advertised). For instance, AS65001 might configure the router at C to advertise 100::/64 only when it does not have some other route.
The hardest part of configuring conditional advertisement is knowing when to trigger the advertisement of the alternate path. Using the lack of reachability to the destination itself (100::/64 in this case) as the trigger will fail in some circumstances, and will always require the global table to converge before the alternate path is advertised. Instead, conditional advertisement is often triggered by the lack of a route to between the BGP speakers being “watched” (in this case, the two [65001,65002] links) learned through from within the AS (within AS65001, rather than through the global routing table).
Triggering on the internal state of a link directly connected to a router managed by the local operator, and carried through internal convergence, removes external convergence from the time required to begin advertising the alternate path.