At the most basic level, there are only three BGP policies: pushing traffic through a specific exit point; pulling traffic through a specific entry point; preventing a remote AS (more than one AS hop away) from transiting your AS to reach a specific destination. In this series I’m going to discuss different reasons for these kinds of policies, and different ways to implement them in interdomain BGP.
In this post, I’ll cover the first of a few ways to give surrounding autonomous systems a hint about where traffic should enter a network. Note this is one of the most vexing problems in BGP policy, so there will be a lot of notes across the next several posts about why some solutions don’t work all that well, or when they will and won’t work.
There are at least three reasons an operator may want to control the point at which traffic enters their network, including:
- Controlling the inbound load on each link. It might be important to balance inbound and outbound load to maintain settlement-free peering, or to equally use all available inbound bandwidth, or to ensure the quality of experience is not impacted by overusing a single link.
- Accounting for geographically dispersed entry points. For instance, while the two entry points into AS65001 might appear to be topologically close, they might be geographically diverse, with one being in South America and the other being in North America.
- Ensuring flows requiring symmetric paths are properly handled. A common use case is the use of stateful packet filters or port address translators, both of which require inbound and outbound traffic to be routed through a single device.
All these reasons apply to all kinds of network operators, so this section will examine the various techniques used to control traffic entry points from the perspective of AS65001 in the following network—
Policies designed to control the point at which traffic enters an operator’s network will often conflict with policies designed to control the point at which traffic exits some other operator’s network. For instance, AS65001’s policy that all traffic destined to 100::/64 enter the network from AS65002 may conflict with AS6500’2 policy that all traffic destined to 100::/64 leave its network by being forwarded to AS65003.
This effect is not just seen between directly connected autonomous systems. For instance, AS65001’s policy that all traffic destined to 100::/64 enter the network through AS65002 may conflict with AS65004’s policy that all traffic to that same destination exit the network by being forwarded to AS65003.
The original intent of BGP policy was the policy of the sender overrides the policy of the receiver, as expressed in the design of the metrics (the multiple exit discriminator, or MED, has a lower priority than the preference). In real deployments, however, exit and entry policies are more fluid and entangled. These relationships will be considered in each of the sections below, each of which describes a different way to influence or control how traffic destined to a single reachable destination.
Let’s begin with the Multiple Exist Discriminator, or MED.
MED is a suggestion or request to neighboring autonomous systems to forward traffic for reachable destination along a particular path. For instance, AS65001 may desire for traffic being sent to 100::/64 be sent to B in the network diagram, rather than to A or through its link to AS65003.
However, the MED is not a transitive attribute of a BGP route. This means that if AS65001 sets the MED so that entry B is preferred, and sends this MED to AS65003, AS65003 will strip (or reset) the MED before advertising 100::/64 to either AS65004 or AS65002.
MED, in this case, would be useful to help AS65002 determine whether to send this traffic to A or B, but not whether to send the traffic to AS65001 or AS65003. AS65002 will, instead, rely on local policy, primarily preference, to determine which exit point to use. If AS65002 determines the best path to 100::/64 is through one of its direct connections to AS65001 (either A or B), and there is no other reason for AS65002 to choose one path over the other, the MED will be used to determined which path to use.
Because AS65003 only has one connection to AS65001, the MED will not impact its bestpath decision at all. Because AS65001’s MED has been reset or stripped in all the routes to 100::/64 AS65004 receives, AS65001’s MED will not play a role in any bestpath decision there, either (AS65002 or AS65003 may set the MED when sending routes to AS65004, which may influence the path AS65004 chooses, but again only when choosing between multiple connections to the same peering AS).
Because MED is only considered nominally useful, it is often stripped off routes when they are received from another AS.