Many years ago, when multicast was still a “thing” everyone expected to spread throughout the Internet itself, a lot of work went into specifying not only IP multicast control planes, but also IP multicast control planes for interdomain use (between autonomous systems). BGP was modified to support IP multicast, for instance, in order to connect IP multicast groups from sender to receiver across the entire ‘net. One of these various efforts was a protocol called the Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol, or DVMRP. The general idea behind DVMRP was to extend many of the already well-known mechanisms for signaling IP multicast with interdomain counterparts. Specifically, this meant extending IGMP to operate across provider networks, rather than within a single network.
As you can imagine, one problem with any sort of interdomain effort is troubleshooting—how will an operator be able to troubleshoot problems with interdomain IGMP messages sources from outside their network? There is no way to log into another provider’s network (some silliness around competition, I would imagine), so something else was needed. Hence the idea of being able to query a router for information about its connected interfaces, multicast neighbors, and other information, was written up in draft-ietf-idmr-dvmrp-v3-11 (which expired in 2000). Included in this draft are two extensions to IGMP; Ask Neighbors2 and Neighbors2. If an operator wanted to know about a particular router which seemed to be causing a particular multicast traffic flow problems, they could ask some local router to send the remote router an Ask Neighbors2 message. The receiving router would respond with a unicast message, Neighbors2 providing details about the local configuration of interfaces, multicast neighbors, and other odds and ends.
If this is starting to sound like a bad idea, that’s because it probably is a bad idea… But many vendors implemented it anyway (probably because there were fat checks associated with implementing the feature, the main reason vendors implement most things). Now some more recent security researchers enter into the picture, and start asking questions like, “I wonder if this functionality can be used to build a DDoS attack.” As it turns out, it can.
Team Cymru set about scanning the entire IPv4 address space to discover any routers “out there” that might happen to support Ask Neighbor2, and to figure out what the response packets would look like. The key point is, of course, that the source address of the Ask Neighbor2 packet can be forged, so you can send a lot of routers Ask Neighbor2 packets, and—by using the source address of some device you would like to attack—have all of the routers known to respond send back Neighbor2 messages. The key questions were, then, how many responders would there be, and how large the replies would be.
The good news is they only found around 305,000 responders to the Ask Neighbor2 request. Those responders, however, transmitted some 263 million packets, most of which were much larger than the original query. This could, therefore, actually be a solid base for a nice DDoS attack. Cisco and Juniper issues alerts, and started working to remove this code from future releases of their operating systems.
One interesting result of this test was that the Cisco implementation of the Neighbor2 response actually contained the IOS Software version number, rather than the IGMP version number, or some other version number. The test revealed that some 1.3% of the responding Cisco routers are running IOS version 10.0, which hasn’t been supported in 20 years. 73.7% of the Cisco routers that responded are running IOS 12.x, which hasn’t been supported in 4 years.
There are a number of lessons here, including—
- Protocols designed to aid troubleshooting can often easily turned into an attack surface
- Old versions of code might well be vulnerable to things you don’t know about, would never have looked for, and would likely even never have thought about looking for
- Large feature sets often also have large attack surfaces; it is almost impossible to actually know about, or even think through, where every possible attack surface might be in tens of millions of lines of code
It is the last lesson I think network engineers need to take to heart. The main thing network engineers seem to do all day is chase new features. Maybe we need an attitude adjustment in this—even new features are a tradeoff. This is one of those points that make disaggregation so very interesting in large scale networks.
At some point, it’s not adding features that is interesting. It’s removing them.