Looking at the capabilities of any given protocol running in our networks today, it certainly seems there are few use cases left the protocol cannot support. In fact, modern interior gateway protocols have become so capable that it almost seems like we only need one to support everything. This is not reality, of course—there are many places where a specialized protocol would do better than a general purpose one, and there are still many use cases current protocols cannot support. One such use case, for OSPF, illustrated below, uses a two part metric to solve a very specific problem, as illustrated below.
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On the left side of this diagram you can see the “typical” broadcast network. Originally common in what used to be called local area networks, these sorts of broadcast segments are actually more common on metro edges and wireless networks today than in a campus or data center. Anyone familiar with OSPF should already know what the problem is with this sort of configuration—if you build an adjacency between every pair of routers illustrated here, you end up with just too much state. For instance—
- Each pair of routers in the network will form an adjacency, and hence exchange a full copy of the link state database. This means each change in the network topology or reachability information will cause at least three different flooded packets to cross this segment to report the change (and it is likely more!).
- When building the shortest path tree (SPT), each router in the network will need to find the path through each one of the routers connected to this broadcast segment. This means the SPT will show three possible paths through this single network from the perspective of every router in the network.
This problem is resolved in OSPF through the creation of a pseudonode (pnode), as shown on the right side of the illustration above. One of the routers connected to the network is elected to advertise a network node Link State Advertisement (LSA). Each of the routers connected to the network then advertises a link to this network LSA (a type 2 LSA in OSPFv2, for reference). The pnode then advertises a zero cost link back to each router connected to the network.
So far, so good—this is all fairly standard stuff.
How is the total cost through this network calculated? When moving from any node to the pnode, the cost the node is advertising is used to calculate the cost. Moving from the pnode to the other side of the network, however, the cost is set to zero.
But what if the cost from, say, router A to the network is different from the cost from router B? In some situations, it is quite possible for these two routers to have different speed links onto the common broadcast network. Think metro Ethernet, for instance, or a wireless network, or perhaps a satellite link.
In this situation, there is no way to express the reality that the cost from A to B is different than the cost from A to C because B and C have different access speeds. The only metric calculated into the cost to cross the network is from A to the pnode; the cost from the pnode to either B or C is always 0.
RFC8042 provides a fix for this problem. But before getting to the fix, there is one more problem to be addressed. Assume A is elected to build and transmit the pnode (A is the designated router). How should A discover the cost to every other router connected to the network from to perspective of the pnode? This, in fact, is a major problem.
How does RFC8042 fix this problem? By adding a new TLV into the OSPF router advertisment that allows a router to advertise its cost to reach the pnode. This is called a two part metric. When B advertises its connection to the pnode, then, it can include the cost from the pnode to itself in this new TLV. In the case of OSPFv2, this new information is carried in a TLV in an opaque LSA; in the case of OSPFv3, this new metric is carried as part of the traffic engineering TLV.
When a router calculates the cost through the network, when it encounters a network LSA (which represents a pnode), it will—
- Calculate the cost to the pnode using the metric advertised by the node pointing to the pnode. This is the “entry point” into the broadcast network; this cost is already included in the calculation of the SPT today.
- Add the cost from the new TLV in the information provided by the router the pnode points to. This is the new information that allows the calculating router to determine the best path through the network including the cost from each node to the network itself.
This might not be really useful in a lot of networks, but where it is useful, it is almost essential to properly calculating a truly optimal shortest path through the network. From a complexity perspective, state has been added to increase optimization; that these two are being traded off here is no surprise.